「同儕觀課與回饋」(Peer Review and Feedback, PRF)是一種教學的反思與合作，實施目的在於協助教師增進教學品質，而終極目標則為 (1) 提升臺師大學生的學習品質 (2) 支援教師的專業發展和教學知能。教學諮詢教師在過程中觀察授課教師的教學方法、師生互動、教材呈現，並給予建設性及支持性的回饋，鼓勵教師教學的長處，同時提供精進教學的建議。
- Policy on Peer Review of Teaching, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, university of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
What is Peer Review and Feedback?
Peer Review and Feedback (PRF) is an important reflective and collaborative activity to assist faculty members in their efforts to improve the quality of their teaching. The ultimate goals of PRF are to: (1) improve the overall quality of student learning at NTNU and (2) facilitate and support the professional development and competency of NTNU teachers. Over the course of the review, peer reviewers observe the instructor’s (reviewee) teaching methods, his/her interactions with students, and the use and presentation of teaching materials. Following, constructive and supportive feedback is offered that acknowledges the reviewee’s strengths and provides suggestions for improvement.
Why Peer Review and Feedback?
Over the last few years, much focus has been given to the learning experience of students and the effectiveness of university education. At the same time, the importance of the role of systematic and regular assessment in the sphere of higher education has continued to grow. While course evaluation surveys emphasize student assessment, also important is the social connectivity among faculty that helps form inter-disciplinary platforms beneficial for dialogue. Sitting in on the class of academic colleagues and offering class observations not only serves as a channel for teaching assessment and development outside of student feedback, but also makes effective use of the educational expertise and professional judgment of university faculty in providing pedagogical feedback, recognizing and affirming excellent teaching methods, and offering suggestions for further development. Therefore, in large research universities worldwide, a system of PRF is being used to offer a balanced view of the teaching profession by including the perspectives of both students and teachers.
The Three Stages of Peer Review and Feedback
Peer Review and Feedback has three major stages: A pre-observation meeting, classroom observation, and a post-observation meeting. During the pre-observation meeting, the reviewee may discuss with his/her peer reviewer the course curriculum, teaching methods, and any specific areas on which he/she wishes to receive feedback. In the post-observation meeting, in addition to feedback discussed, the reviewee may also ask his/her peer reviewer to produce a written report to serve as future reference.
In the pre-observation meeting the following topics should be discussed:
- A discussion of the goals for the classroom observation
- Thinking about the focus and direction of the classroom observation
- Confirming the time of the classroom observation (Which class period? When to convene the post-observation meeting?)
- Obtaining course curriculum, lecture handouts, prior homework, and any other supplementary information relevant to the class
- Discussing the form that the post-observation meeting should take (face-to-face discussion or written report)
In addition, the following questions may be addressed in the pre-observation meeting:
- How does the class fit in with the overall curriculum?
- What is the expected learning outcome for students of the class?
- How are class times planned?
- Did students have homework prior to the class?
- Are there specific areas or teaching methods that require feedback?
- Are new teaching methods going to be used in class? Or will previous teaching methods be employed?
- At this point are there any other questions or ideas that need to be addressed?
Two forms are available for download. Each form highlights various aspects of instruction differently, while both offer detailed explanations of each aspect of instruction. These forms can be used as a reference by the peer reviewer over the course of the classroom observation. Please note that the criterion listed in the forms is not exhaustive and not without other options. Neither is it necessary to refer to every aspect listed. As academic disciples vary in content, we offer two types of forms to choose from.
It is recommended that the post-observation meeting be held within a week following the classroom observation. The peer reviewer may refer to the following suggestions when preparing to present his/her feedback:
- Feedback discussed with the reviewee should be based strictly on the behavior and teaching methods observed during the period of classroom observation.
- First offer positive feedback.
- Offer concrete feedback that can be used by the reviewee to improve in the future.
- If requested by the reviewee, a written report may be produced by the peer reviewer.
Topics that may be discussed in the post-observation meeting include:
- Did the instruction meet all class goals?
- What were the strong points of the instruction?
- What the challenging areas of the instruction?
- Are there areas of the instruction that you would like to see changed?